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As the children progress through school, the calculation strategies used change. These are closely linked to the National Curriculum for Mathematics and the age related outcomes for each Year group.
Starting at Early Years through to Year 6, the children work through the multiplication stages. These are progressive and the skills taught link and build up through the stages.
Mr Evans, our lead teacher for Mathematics, has produced a series of learning tutorials to support both parents/guardians, as well as children to understand the multiplication stages.
Multiplication - Stage 1 (End of year expectation for Year 2)
In stage 1, children are taught to solve on-step problems involving multiplication by calculating the answer using objects and pictorial representations.
Multiplication - Stage 2 (End of year expectation for Year 2)
In stage 2, children are taught that multiplication is, in effect, just repeated addition. This fact is illustrated through the use of a number line.
Multiplication - Stage 3 (End of year expectation for Year 3)
In stage 3, children are taught the expanded column method. This method is very similar to the standard column method, however the answer to each column is written out in full. This helps consolidate an understanding of place value before progressing to the standard method.
Multiplication - Stage 4 (End of year expectation for Year 4)
In stage 4, children progress to the standard long multiplication method, but with questions that only multiply by one digit.
Multiplication - Stage 5 (End of year expectation for Year 5)
In stage 5, the children continue the standard long multiplication method, by multiplying with numbers larger than 1 digit. This method introduces the concept of a place holder and it's important children understand that this place holder is added because we are multiplying by the tens column.
Multiplication - Stage 6 (End of year expectation for Year 6)
In stage 6, children learn to multiply whole numbers by decimals using the standard long multiplication method. Multiplying decimals is the same as multiplying whole numbers. The trick is to count the number of digits after the decimal point in the question. This will be the number of decimal places in the answer.