As the children progress through school, the calculation strategies used change. These are closely linked to the National Curriculum for Mathematics and the age related outcomes for each Year group.
Starting at Early Years through to Year 6, the children work through the multiplication stages. These are progressive and the skills taught link and build up through the stages.
Mr Evans, our lead teacher for Mathematics, has produced a series of learning tutorials to support both parents/guardians, as well as children to understand the division stages.
Division - Stage 1 (End of year expectation for Year 2)
In Stage 1, children solve one-step problems involving division by calculating the answer using objects and pictorial representations. The key difference between this method and Stage 2 is that for this method children are taught that division is the concept of sharing.
Division - Stage 2 (End of year expectation for Year 2)
In Stage 2, children are taught to group numbers/objects in order to solve a division calculation. This is because grouping is a more efficient method than sharing.
Division - Stage 3 (End of year expectation for Year 3)
In Stage 3, children are taught to use a number line to support them in solving a division calculation. The purpose of a number line is to help children visualise the relationship between multiplication and division, and how they are inverse operations.
Division - Stage 4 (End of year expectation for Year 5)
In Stage 4, the children are taught the chunking method of division. This method involves the repeated subtraction of the divisor or multiples of the divisor. For this stage, we encourage the children to start with a 'chunk' of 10.
Division - Stage 5 (End of year expectation for Year 5)
In stage 5, children develop the chunking method from stage 4, but are taught to use the calculation more efficiently. For example, instead of subtracting two chunks of x10, it is more efficient to instead subtract one chunk of x20.
Division - Stage 6 (End of year expectation for Year 5)
In Stage 6, the children are taught the formal short method of division. It's important to remember the place value of numbers in this calculation, for example it's not how many 4s go into 5 because that 5 is worth 5 hundreds.
Division - Stage 7 (End of year expectation for Year 6)
In Stage 7, children are taught the formal method of long division. It is an expectation that all children at the end of Year 6 will be secure with this method. This method does look complicated, however if you follow the steps carefully it is pretty straight forward. To use this method securely, children need to have a secure understanding of doubling and halving strategies, illustrating the importance of securing these skills at a young age.